Monday, 28 June 2021

Mulching trees, Sowing seeds and Oppressive Heat - Week 4 - ESC - The Polyculture Project

The dramatic change in temperature started with the new week, and I really can't recall ever experiencing such humid conditions here, most likely a result of the heavy and significant rainfalls of the previous two weeks and sudden rise of temperature by around 15 degrees C. This week we welcomed Fanny from France to the group, and with our ESC volunteers back from Wake Up festival, we started the week by sowing some kale, beetroot and carrot seeds.


Fanny sowing carrot seeds


With the soil moist and warm and hot sunny days that followed, it only took a few days for the kale seeds to germinate, shortly followed by the beetroot. The carrots haven't shown up yet as expected, but they will likely be making an appearance by the end of next week.

Here's a table providing the minimum and preferred soil temperature for a number of crop seeds and the estimated time it takes the seeds to germinate. For a more detailed look at this see our previous blog post here.

 Minimum and Preferred Temperatures for Common Crops


Germination Temperatures for Field Crops and HerbsGermination Temperatures for Vegetables
SpeciesMinimum (°C)Preferred (°C)Days to
Germinate
SpeciesMinimum (°C)Preferred (°C)Days to
Germinate
Grains
Bean
8-1016-306-8
Wheat
Triticum aestivum
420-Beet410-304-6
Barley
Hordeum vulgare
3-520-Cabbage47-354-6
Oats
Avena sativa
520-24-Carrot47-306-8
Rapeseed
Brassica napus
715-20-Cauliflower47-305-7
Forage Crops
Celery
415-217-9
Alfalfa
Medicago sativa
1252-6Corn1016-3210 -12
Birdsfoot Trefoil
Lotus corniculatus
126Cucumber1616-353-6
Red Clover
Trifolium pratense
3254-6Aubergine1624-326-8
Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis
118-254-6Lettuce24-273-5
White Clover
Trifolium repens
518-204-6Onion210-356-8
Fescue Grass
Festuca spp.
313-18-Parsnip210-2114-17
Orchardgrass
Dactylis glomerata
418-20-Pea44-246-8
Timothy
Phleum pratense
418-22-Pepper1618-358-10
Herbs
Pumpkin
1621-324-6
Basil
Ocimum basilicum
1821-243-5Radish47-324-6
Mint
Mentha spicata
1820 -2410-15Rutabaga416-304-6
Parsley
Petroselinum crispum
410-3013-16Spinach27-245-7
Lovage
Levisticum officinale
162110-20Squash1621-354-6
Summer Savory
Satureja hortensis
182014-21Tomato1016-306-8
Chives
Allium schoenoprasum
162114-21Swiss Chard420-234-6
Fenugreek
Trigonella foenum-graecum
16213-5Turnip/Rutabaga1518-213 -6
Celeriac
1518-2914-21


The moist weather seems to have caused powdery mildew to appear on the leaves of some of the Hazel saplings. I thought perhaps the age of the plants might be a contributing factor to their susceptibility, but the same condition was also observed on some of the leaves of more mature plants. We'll keep an eye on them to see how this develops.


 After the cherries finish and as the Raspberries come into peak early summer production, a fresh round of plants break into bloom.  The below photo is of a south-facing border, and this week, two of the plants in the polyculture captured my attention. Purple Loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria and a 'Reuben' and Rubus fruticosus cv. - Blackberry cultivar we have been growing for a few years.



Rubus fruticosus cv.

Purple Loosestrife is a very ornamental plant attracting welcome pollinators such as butterflies and bees. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -25°c. It can be grown in a pond or as a wetland plant but may also be very invasive, so care should be taken when planning planting schemes.

Purple Loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria 

The ESC crew have been a massive help in the gardens this week as we race to cut all the biomass in the gardens and mulch the young trees with it before the dry season starts. It's intense work in our current temperatures, and we're starting to create a new rhythm of meeting at 6am to start activities before the sun becomes powerful, which at the moment seems to be as early as 8am.  Many of the trees in our gardens on the East side of Shipka are predated upon by a local herd of goats, and we're in the process of looking into securing a larger area of land in one spot that can be fenced off to give establishing trees and shrubs a chance to mature. 

Target area we are working on amalgamating in order to fence and develop a 3 ha world-class example of a regenerative landscape. 

It's a frustratingly slow process, but the vision is to publicly demonstrate regenerative practices that feature both local and ancient cultivars of fruit and nut trees, the incredible native biodiversity of the region and beautiful polycultures that provide resources for people while enhancing biodiversity.


Here the crew helps out in our garden Ataraxia. We slash the existing biomass, predominantly grasses, that will compete with the young trees and shrubs for water in the coming summer months and drop the cut matter directly onto the beds to build the quality of the soil. The trees are mulched with straw and this is topped up with the chopped organic material



We've been looking at how to attract Beneficial Organisms into the gardens this week during our  Regenerative Landscape Design - Online Interactive Course. All organisms are beneficial, at the very least all organisms past, present and future decompose to nourish something else, but when we speak of beneficial organisms we are speaking of those organisms that provide clear and present benefits, specifically to our polyculture activity. Beneficial organisms, or Borgs as we prefer to shorten it, are a very decent group of organisms that make great partners in the polyculture landscape offering, as the name implies, benefits to our activity of growing the stuff we need. They seem to be happy to carry out these duties providing we supply (or at the very least donʼt destroy) suitable living conditions for them, i.e habitat. The benefits these organisms offer come mainly in the form of increasing the productivity of our crops via Pollination Support, protecting our crops from pests via Pest Predation and providing fertility to our crops via their roles in decomposing organic matter and supplying nutrients, Fertility Provision. Some plants make excellent Borg magnets, and definitely in the top 10 is Lovage - Levisticum officinale

This Loveage plant in the home garden grows among Raspberries and underneath a young Cherry tree. Borgs flock to the umbels long before the blooms actually emerge



In the below photo you can see the Raspberries that grow next to the Loveage. The crew have really enjoyed gorging on them this week :)


Fanny and Tara tucking in :)


For more info plants for Borgs , check out our previous post  Five of Our Favourite Plants to Attract Beneficial Insects


A quick interlude to let you know about our Regenerative Landscape Design - Online Interactive Course,  We're super excited about running the course and look forward to providing you with the confidence, inspiration, and opportunity to design, build and manage regenerative landscapes, gardens, and farms that produce food and other resources for humans while enhancing biodiversity.


Regenerative Landscape Design Online Course

You can find out all about the course here and use the registration form to sign up for the whole course or individual weeks or modules that interest you.


The ESC Volunteers have started a new blog recording their experiences and reflections in Shipka. While we are hosting the volunteers and their activities include supporting us in the gardens, they are also getting involved with projects around Shipka, and going to be helping some of the elderly people in their gardens, while learning from them valuable skills in annual vegetable production. 

While on the topic of vegetable production, we'll end this week with a look at just how much Zeno, our annual polyculture planted back in week 1 has grown. The photos were taken 9 days apart, and you can see the plants' response to the wet weather followed by 30+degrees c temps. So far all the plants look healthy which is encouraging.


We offer a diversity of plants and seeds for permaculture, forest gardens and regenerative landscapes including a range of fruit and nut cultivars. We Deliver all over Europe from Nov - March. - Give a happy plant a happy home :)

Our Bio-Nursery - Permaculture/Polyculture/ Regenerative Landscape Plants 

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